Skeptic » eSkeptic » July 28, 2005

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a UFO as imagined by Blumrich

A UFO as imagined in late Josef Blumrich’s 1973 book The Spaceships of Ezekiel (Bantam. ISBN 0553083783). Unaware that Ezekiel had described God enthroned, Blumrich, a NASA rocket engineer, reinterpreted Ezekial’s description as a UFO. Blumrich worked on the Saturn 5 rocket, the Lunar Lander and on Skylab.

The Spaceships of Ezekiel

by Tim Callahan

A perennial example of a supposed ancient record of extraterrestrial contact, used by authors asserting that alien astronauts visited the Earth in antiquity, is to be found in the first chapter of Ezekiel, in which that prophet, in exile near Babylon, recounts a vision (Ezek. 1:4–28):

As I looked, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, and a great cloud, with brightness round about it, and fire flashing forth continually, and in the midst of the fire, as it were gleaming bronze. And from the midst of it came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance: they had the form of men, but each had four faces, and each had four wings. Their legs were straight, and the soles of their feet were like the sole of a calf’s foot; and they sparkled like burnished bronze. Under the wings on their four sides they had human hands. And the four had their faces and their wings thus: their wings touched one another; they went straightforward, without turning as they went.

As for the likeness of their faces, each had the face of a man in front; the four had the face of a lion on the right side, the four had the face of an ox on the left side, and the four had the face of an eagle at the back. Such were their faces. And their wings were spread out above; each creature had two wings, each of which touched the wing of another, while two covered their bodies. And each went straightforward; wherever the spirit would go, they went, without turning as they went. In the midst of the living creatures was something that looked like burning coals of fire, like torches moving to and fro, like a flash of lightning. And the living creatures darted to and fro, like a flash of lightning.

Now as I looked at the living creatures, I saw a wheel upon the earth beside the living creatures, one for each of the four of them. As for the appearance of the wheels and their construction; their appearance was like the gleaming of chrysolite; and the four had the same likeness, their construction being as it were a wheel within a wheel. When they went, they went in any of their four directions without turning as they went. The four wheels rims were so high that they were dreadful and their rims were full of eyes round about. And when the living creatures went, the wheels went beside them; and when the living creatures rose from the earth, the wheels rose. Wherever the spirit would go, they went, and the wheels rose along with them; for the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. When those went, these went; and when those stood, these stood; and when those rose from the earth, the wheels rose along with them; for the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels.

Over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, shining like crystal, spread out above their heads. And under the firmament their wings were stretched out straight, one toward another; and each creature had two wings covering its body. And when they went, I heard the sound of their wings like the sound of many waters, like the thunder of the Almighty, a sound of tumult like the sound of a host; when they stood still, they let down their wings. And there came a voice from above the firmament over their heads; when they stood still they let down their wings.

And above the firmament over their heads there was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like sapphire; and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness as it were of a human form. And upward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as were gleaming bronze, like the appearance of fire enclosed round about; and downward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was a brightness round about him. Like the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about.

Such was the appearance of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face and I heard the voice of one speaking.

What most often strikes UFO enthusiasts as reminiscent of a spaceship, other than the fact that everything that’s in it is airborne, are the wheels. Before dealing with those specifically, however, let us consider the vision as a whole and see if the imagery of the ancient religions of the Near East isn’t a better fit as the source of Ezekiel’s vision than the imagery of a spaceship.

First of all, Ezekiel says he saw the apparition as a cloud coming on a wind from the north. The word translated as “north” is, in the original Hebrew, zaphon, a word that means “hidden” or “dark” and is only associated with the north as being a quarter of the compass that was gloomy and unknown. To the north of the civilized world in the perspective of the ancient near east lay wild barbaric lands out of which such nomadic peoples as the Cimmerians and the Scythians erupted to wreak havoc on the settled world. Thus the portent of the cloud is ominous or mysterious. However, zaphon is also the name of a locality, Mt. Zaphon in Lebanon, the home of the Canaanite gods. The patriarch of the Canaanite pantheon, El, was merged with Yahweh and is referred to in the Bible in the plural / intensive form Elohim. In fact the two names were often coupled as Yahweh Elohim, translated in the Bible as “the LORD GOD.” In co-opting El’s name, Yahweh also co-opted his wife, Asherah, whose image is constantly being removed from the Temple by strictly Yahwist kings such as Hezekiah and Josiah (2 Kgs. 18:4 and 23:6). Yahweh also would have been seen by his worshipers as taking over the sacred mountain of the Canaanite gods, Mt. Zaphon. Thus, the cloud that approaches from the north (zaphon) is both mysterious and holy.

Next, let us consider the living creatures within the flaming cloud. Though having the form of men, they have two sets of wings, four faces, and feet like calves’ hooves. This chimera-like anatomy has been glossed over by those seeing Ezekiel’s version as a spaceship. Their explanation is that the four faces are the faces of different alien beings looking out of different windows of the spacecraft. Given Ezekiel’s primitive mind-set, the argument goes, he certainly couldn’t have understood what he was seeing. However, for someone who was overawed by indescribable space aliens, Ezekiel was very precise and particular in describing what he saw.

the god
Ninurat has four wings

Supernatural beings were typically shown with multiple wings throughout the ancient Near East. The god Ninurta has four wings (shown here in a stone relief found in the temple of Ninurta at Nimrud, Iraq).

Furthermore, his imagery fits that of the myths of the ancient near east. In an ancient relief from the Assyrian city of Nineveh, the god Ninurta is shown with four wings, just as the beings in Ezekiel’s vision have four wings. The wings of the four beings in the vision touched each other, which calls to mind the description of the cherubim in the Holy of Holies of Solomon’s temple in 1 Kings 6:27, 28:

He put the cherubim in the innermost part of the house; and the wings of the cherubim were spread out so that a wing of one touched the one wall and the wing of the other cherub touched the other wall; their other wings touched each other in the middle of the house. And he overlaid the cherubim with gold.

As with the cherubim flanking the Holy of Holies, the wings of the living creatures in Ezekiel’s vision touch each other. Solomon overlays the cherubim with gold, while the living creatures sparkle like burnished bronze. As to the four faces of the creatures in Ezekiel’s vision, these, too, hearken back to the cherubim and to Solomon’s temple. Lions and bulls are frequently mentioned as part of the imagery of the temple interior (1 Kings 7:25, 29, 36). Cherubim were often depicted as having men’s heads, the bodies of either lions or bulls — sometimes a lion’s fore parts and a bull’s hindquarters (hence the calf’s feet of living creatures of Ezekiel 1:7) — and the wings of eagles sprouting from their lion or bull shoulders.

The symbolism expressed in this depiction of the cherubim is one of supremacy: The eagle is the foremost bird, the lion the foremost wild beast, and the bull the foremost domestic beast. All of these, coupled with human intelligence (symbolized by the man’s head, or in Ezekiel’s vision, a face) were indications of the godlike power of the cherub. This word in the original Hebrew form is krubh, which is related to the Akkadian karibu, meaning an intermediary between gods and men, a divine messenger. The word for messenger in Greek, hence the word used to designate divine messengers in the Christian scriptures, which were written in Greek, was angelos. So the living creatures of Ezekiel’s vision were not bizarre four-faced space aliens. Nor were they a depiction of different alien species looking out of the portholes of a spaceship. They were angels.

the god
Ninurat has four wings

The term cherubim in the Herbrew Bible refers not to our modern usage of “chubby young angels,” but to winged guardian figures, usually with a human head and the body of an animal. Shown here is an Assyrian guardinan figure wearing a horned crown that indicates his divinity.

The thrones of Phoenician kings often had arm rests in the shape of cherubim, signifying divine sponsorship of the king, and God is often depicted in the Bible as enthroned on the cherubim. That this is precisely what Ezekiel relates in his vision is made clear by the final description in this passage (Ezek. 1:26–28):

And above the firmament over their heads there was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like sapphire; and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness as it were of a human form. And upward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as were gleaming bronze, like the appearance of fire enclosed round about; and downward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was a brightness round about him. Like the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. Such was the appearance of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face and I heard the voice of one speaking.

God sits enthroned on a firmament resting on the cherubim. All of the symbolism fits that of the ancient near east. The firmament over the living creatures, upon which God sits enthroned, represents the firmament of heaven — the dome of the sky — to which the stars were fixed and over the surface of which the sun and moon traveled according to the ancient near eastern model of the cosmos. If anyone has any doubts that Ezekiel’s vision is of God enthroned upon the cherubim, consider what Ezekiel says in the final description in this passage (verse 28): “Such was the appearance of the glory of the LORD.” In the very next verse, Ezek 2:1, the voice of the one enthroned says to Ezekiel: “Son of man, stand upon your feet, and I will speak to you.” Always, in the Book of Ezekiel, when God speaks to the prophet, he opens by addressing him as “son of man” (ben adam in the original Hebrew).

Yet what is the significance of the wheels? As noted in the Anchor Bible’s commentary on Ezekiel, wheels before the invention of spokes were small solid disks with large axles. The large axle would have the appearance of a wheel within a wheel. While the wheels of chariots and most other vehicles of Ezekiel’s time had spokes, wheeled stands used within the temple often used the small old-fashioned wheels of earlier days. That the rims of the wheels were full of eyes again evokes the supernatural. The wheels are more metaphor than mechanical detail. So the wheels were yet another reference to temple imagery and holiness and were not flying saucers.

the god
Ninurat has four wings

Solid wheels with large hubs on a chariot before the invention of spokes (from a panel depicting chariots Ur, Mesopotamia, ca. 2500 BCE).

However, to those who see Ezekiel’s vision as a UFO sighting, the phrase “a wheel within a wheel” suggests machinery. The wheel within a wheel is rendered as a “wheel in the middle of a wheel” in the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible, the word in Hebrew being tavek, meaning “to sever” or a bisection, in other words “in the center of.” In his 1970 book Chariots of the Gods? Erich von Daniken wrote (p. 56): “Ezekiel says that each wheel was in the middle of another. An optical illusion! To our present way of thinking what he saw was one of those special vehicles the Americans use in the desert and swampy terrain.”

Von Daniken went on to say that the vehicle was possibly a version of an amphibious helicopter. But are these wheels made from some form of rubber, as we would expect in such a vehicle? No. According to Ezekiel’s vision they have the appearance of chrysolite (Revised Standard Version or RSV) or beryl (KJV). Chrysolite is a yellow-green form of the mineral olivine and is sometimes used as a gemstone. Beryl is also a gemstone. It is noted for its hardness and comes in the form of green, yellow, pink, or white six-sided prisms. That means that light shines through it. The actual Hebrew word translated as chrysolite or beryl is tarshiysh, which can as well mean topaz (another yellow, transparent jewel) or merely a gem. The word is identical to the name of the city of Tarshish in Spain that symbolically stood for the uttermost west, or the ends of the Earth. So the substance called tarshiysh meant any exotic gemstone from far away. It seems odd that a machine that might be a form of amphibious helicopter would have wheels made of a yellowish translucent crystal.

Once we take away the “wheels within wheels” reference is there anything in Ezekiel’s vision that sounds like alien machinery? Possibly, depending on how certain words are translated. For example, “The creatures’ feet are not so much the feet of calves as they are those of bull-calves or young bulls.” In Hebrew the word is egal. But Hebrew has few words, and those words have many meanings. The ancient Israelites understood which meanings to use from how the word was used in a sentence, but the meanings aren’t always clear to us. Egal can also mean “round.” Since the beings’ legs were straight, could it be that the feet were round because the straight legs were actually metal columns with round bases? How can we know whether or not this is the case?

To answer that question we must remember that parts of the description of what Ezekiel saw can’t be viewed as separate from the rest of it, and we have to see if the images in the vision relate to anything else in the Bible. If the legs are metal columns, wouldn’t we expect the creature’s wings to also be like aircraft wings? In fact, they don’t seem to be either fixed wings or a picture of a whirling Helicopter propeller. The Hebrew word translated as “wings” is kanaph, meaning either a bird wing, an edge, or a flap of clothing.

If those who want to see the living creatures as space aliens would read more of Ezekiel they would find an almost identical vision in Ezekiel 10. There the prophet identifies the beings as cherubim, and says in verse 15 that they were the living beings he saw in his first vision.

Finally, let us consider what Moshe Greenberg said in his commentary on Ezekiel, 1–20, volume 22 of the Anchor Bible (p. 58):

Virtually every component of Ezekiel’s vision can thus be derived from Israelite tradition supplemented by neighboring iconography — none of the above cited elements of which need have been outside the range of the ordinary Israelite.

Ezekiel’s vision, so exotic and otherworldly to us, was something any of his compatriots in exile in Babylon would have understood easily. In fact, it is only when the vision is rendered in translation, rather than in the original Hebrew, coupled with modern readers’ unfamiliarity with the iconography of the ancient near east, that makes it possible for us today to mistake angels for spaceships.

painting: The Vision of Ezekiel, Raphael, 1518

The Vision of Ezekiel by Raphael, 1518

  • Greenberg, Moshe (commentator). 1983. Ezekiel, 1–20, Anchor Bible. Vol. 22. Albright, William Foxwell and David Noel Freedman (General Editors). Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. Inc.
  • May, Herbert G. and Bruce Metzger (eds). 1962. The Oxford Annotated Bible (RSV). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Strong, James. 1890. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. Gordonville, TN: Dugan Publishers Inc.
  • von Daniken, Erich. 1970. Chariots of the Gods New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.


  1. Juan Sanchez says:

    Another major error in Blumrich’s interpretation is that the vehicle Ezekiel describes is definitely not round. Blumrich says that for aerodynamic reasons his design requires a top-shaped vehicle. A number of Blumrich’s other errors are described at

  2. Josh says:

    King James Version
    Ezekiel 1

    1Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I was among the captives by the river of Chebar, that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God.
    … Read More
    2In the fifth day of the month, which was the fifth year of king Jehoiachin’s captivity,

    3The word of the LORD came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the LORD was there upon him.

    4And I looked, and, behold, a whirlwind…

    He saw visions of God and the hand of the LORD was there upon him, not aliens. You can’t take Ezekiel 1:4-28 into a literal alien sighting without first reading Ezekiel 1:1-3 and realizing that he speaks of God.

    On the other hand, if he IS having visions of God and you still take Ezekiel 1:4-28 literal, then what you’re telling me is that you believe that aliens are God.

    You can take most passages out of the Bible and turn them into whatever you want.

    And since verse 28 is the final, let’s read on…

    Ezekiel 2

    1And he said unto me, Son of man, stand upon thy feet, and I will speak unto thee.

    2And the spirit entered into me when he spake unto me, and set me upon my feet, that I heard him that spake unto me.

    3And he said unto me, Son of man, I send thee to the children of Israel, to a rebellious nation that hath rebelled against me: they and their fathers have transgressed against me, even unto this very day.

    4For they are impudent children and stiffhearted. I do send thee unto them; and thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD.

    If you believe that Ezekiel 1:4-28 speaks of aliens, you believe that aliens are God.

  3. Mike says:

    If aliens did come down to Ezekiel or any of the other people in ancient texts from around the globe, then they would probably worship them as God.

    In Borneo during WWII Americans set up a base there for a short period. While there they provided for the natives. When the troops left all that was there was a crashed plane, so they worshiped it so their “gods” would come back and help them again.

  4. Juan Sanchez says:

    The Borneo incident proves nothing. It is like saying that because one claim of child abuse is disproved that no child is ever abused. Josh above quotes where Ezekiel says “the spirit entered into me”. But Blumrich says that “the spirit” means the vehicle. Blumrich conveniently doesn’t mention this verse.

    • Jose says:

      You are just a poor debunker, it is very very clear that Ezekiel is describing a kind of spaceship, if you don’t want to see, ok, don’t see it. It doesn’t matter, the fact it is, even your boring article.
      You can chat and chat and chat but you can’t stop people thinking.

  5. Larissa Gardner says:

    Wow. I think this is the first time I’ve seen a positive refutation of the argument in “Chariots of the Gods.” Most refutations I’ve seen are various forms of the “that’s absurd and unscientific so it’s not true” way of ignoring a problem. I like the idea that the author found plausible meanings in the local mythology to explain the passage in Ezekiel. The wheel within a wheel picture one was especially effective in my mind.

    I see all of your arguments in my mind as well. What Josh says is true: if one is going to take the passage literally then one must accept the ramifications whole-cloth as well. In his seeming agreement with the author, Juan is busy picking apart Blumrich’s arguments; and Mike’s cargo cult idea could be applied here with Clarke’s Third Law that “any sufficiently higher technology is indistinguishable from magic”. But I have to say that I’m going to side with Occam’s Razor, which the author seems to be using in the article: we should not overlook reasonable explanations.

    Happy debating to you all!

  6. Goudohr says:

    Well I still think there is a possibility that it could actually be an alien spaceship, how do you know if aliens didn’t disgise their stuff so that ancient prophet would see it as something familiar, like all those cherubs and winged bulls and all?

  7. Paul Hai says:

    I think Ezekiel is describing Pyramid construction in Egypt.
    Google haitheory for more information.

  8. Zak Bishrey says:

    I found Blumrich in his book “The Spaceships of Ezekiel” more informative and entertaining than the debunking that followed. Debating whether Blumrich was correct in every particular of his interpretation will, no doubt, continue on both side of the credibility divide.

  9. GABRIEL says:



  10. beyonder says:

    nuestros ancestros tuvieron encuentros con exstraterrestres aliens que se acian pasar por dioses porque venian de los cielos con sus naves.

  11. Kathy says:

    We see what we want to see from our own perceptions of reality.

  12. Dan says:

    I think there are certain comments on here from religious zealots who say things like “you must believe that aliens are God” etc. ….You could never hope to freely discuss a subject like this (such as the alternative interpretations of a prophet’s alleged visions) with a religious zealot, because to them, God’s existence is completely irrefutable and taken for granted at the beginning of the argument.

    • Tom says:

      You can’t have your cake and eat it too. If you are using a Bible prophet’s vision of some strange “thing” as evidence for something, then you have to accept what the rest of the Bible says. Either it’s a true account and testimony of human history or it’s not. No picking and choosing what you want to believe. And the entire scope of the Bible is very clear. There is one God, the Creator, who is omniscient and omnipresent. There are also angels. These angels have taken very physical manifestations throughout Biblical history – enough so to the point that the fallen angels actually took human wives and corrupted the human bloodline, resulting the Great Flood – which coincidentally is another argument for the “ancient alien visitation” theorists.

      Point being, the Bible is very clear about who and what God is. He is not an alien that visited mankind in a spaceship as the “Ezekiel Spaceship” theorists would like to believe. Of course “God’s existence is completely irrefutable and taken for granted at the beginning of the argument” – Because we use the ENTIRE Bible as a gauge to confirm who He is. Not just one chapter from one book. By using more of the Bible – in fact more of the Book of Ezekiel – Ezekiel himself said in chapter 10 that the vision he described in chapter 1 were “cherubim” or angels. Definitely not some alien spacecraft.

      • Thomas says:

        Cherubim…. which means angel…. which a mistranslation for messenger. Where does it say that god is Omniscient in the bible. Where does it say he is Omnipresent. In fact several points in the bible point more towards God being an alien then him being a supernatural force, for instance. Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed BY god. with fire. It also gives a pretty good explanation about tumors and radiation poisoning in spots. its not just the book of Ezekiel, a book from the dead sea scrolls “the book of Enoch” is very interesting as well.also Moses face shone after coming down from the mountain with the tablets after being with God for 40 days.

        • Luke says:

          Apparently, the actions of God, and the results of an encounter with God fit the description of what YOU think an alien encounter “might” be like. That is not an argument.

      • Speedboat says:

        This is silly. The Bible is true because the Bible says it is true. A tired argument. We know by now the Bible is a compilation of many influences and copies and interpretations. It has been subject to politics and culture even before the days of the Hebrew kings. Even Moses had to make a copy of his original source! The version we have now is a consensus forged by a religious establishment in the near past. The Bible is a wonderful guide and a window into history, but not an absolutely incontrovertable source of “perfect truth”.

  13. James says:

    the first time I read Ezekial, the first thought I had was he was describing a UFO, which prompted me to seek more info on the net, lo and behold someone else had the same feeling, the initial image comes through regardless how you interpret it, he,s describing a superior being, when you think of the history of the earth and the short span of man,s existence on this planet, in comparison to the theory of evolution how and why could someone such as Ezekial have this kind of profound vision if not by a visitation

  14. Karl Fabian says:

    After reading Blumrich’s book and also the book of Ezekiel in the Bible, I am convinced that Ezekiel is trying to describe an extraterrestrial machine from the perspective that an ancient man would. The natives of New Guinea and Malenesia thought that aircraft that came there during WW2 were from the “Gods” and after the war built mockups of aircraft out of straw & wood to lure the “God’s’ back (Cargo Cult). While of course Blumrichs book does not prove that what Ezekiel was describing was a vehicle from beyond Earth, it is probably the best explanation to date to explain this very unusual chapter in the Old Testament…. far more compelling than Callahan’s arguments. One could easily dismiss the “Cargo Cult ‘ airplane effigys as stylized bird gods using his train of reasoning.

  15. Ailton says:

    The people of guinea, didn’t know the airplane, so they thought it was god’s spaceship. That is clear to us because the airplane obviouslly was already invented in the second ww.
    The problem is that in the days of Ezekiel, there were no planes. The only things able to fly would be birds at that time.
    To discribe some spaceship of any kind back then, is intriguing.
    Personally, I’m not religious, though I’m spiritual.
    I’ve read the bible and everytime God and angels and spirits and heaven are mentioned, I think of a civilization on another planet, much much older than our civilization here on earth, which just a few hundred years ago, didn’t have a car or airplane, never mind spaceships capable of traveling thru outta space.
    If we think of God as creator, and heaven above, it’s not implausible to imagine the whole thing as being a civilization, leaving in the form of spirits, on a level so superior, that we would only be able to understande, by developping ourselves spiritually, to the level where we can appreciate that possibility and including ourselves in that midst.
    Tele transportation on that level is also plausible, including re-materialization.
    I would rather believe in that, which would include our material beliefs, than simply a God whom, somehow influences our daily lives and “created” us in his likeness, but yet only lives in our inner thoughts, and is not accepted in the context of a real live being, visiting and communicating with us and perhaps giving us a ride to his “paradise” in another constelation.
    If we are to accept the concept of God and other living forms, then we must think big. We must abandon our limitations and open our minds to time travel, other societies millions of years ahead of us and understand that only spiritually, can we hope to join live as it might exist in the greater universe.

    • Awaken says:

      How can man reach this level when he is filled with hatred, greed, and lust for sex and money? Besides all that racism is still a live.

  16. Really says:

    So in nutshell skeptics opinion is that angels are real, but aliens are not…?

  17. Paul Hai says:

    Ezekiel writes of machines thus,”their rims were high and awesome, and all four rims were full of eyes all around.” A Pyramid block with pulleys fitted is about one metre wide and one and a half metres high. When numerous pulleys were ascending the Pyramid during the cool of night by firelight, the scene would certainly be high and awesome. Ezekiel writes of what appears to be the lifting devices used to fit the pulley which he writes are straight with a calf shaped foot made of bronze. These devices are known as “clawlifts” and are fully explained in the book, RAISING STONE 1. I suspected the clawlifts were made of timber and their feet strengthened with bronze plates. There is no need to consider Ezekiel mentally sick and there is no need to entertain any ideas of UFO’s and aliens. The building of the Pyramids was a dramatic event of ancient times using the latest technology involving machinery. This machinery was designed and manufactured by MAN, and having the strength of an OX, could soar like an EAGLE and leap like a LION. The four faces are the associated attributes of the machinery itself. The CHERUBS are the pulleys climbing as if alive and their WINGS are the pulley lobes which touch each other as they are tied together around a beryl coloured sandstone block to be part of the THRONE. The THRONE is the Pyramid. The NOISE and WHIRLWIND refer to much activity onsite at Giza. (This ancient bible documented report is dated c.590 BC)
    I need to be specific about … “and all four rims were full of eyes all around”.
    Ezekiel’s reference to “eyes all around” is how the cross-pegs (for the rope) appear on the outer faces of the four pinion-pulley’s lobes.
    These “eyes” are adjacent the four rims of the four pinion-pulley lobes and so are “all around”.
    These “eyes” are, to be specific, the round flat ends of the cross-pegs.
    These end pegs were more than likely enhanced with paint to give animal’s eyes appearance, to bestow animal qualities to the pinion-pulleys operation. (Bird’s eyes for flight, lion’s eyes for power and so forth).
    There are today only two ancient documents related to ancient Egyptian Pyramid construction at Giza.
    “Ezekiel’s vision” and information given to Herodotus of Halicarnassus (The Greek Father of History) c.450 BC by his counterparts at Giza who were the historian priests as the ancient priesthood were literate and it is they who recorded history that was Egypt’s concern and interest.
    For instance Egyptian priests recorded the devastating eruption of the Thera (Kalliste) volcano which occurred 1627-1600 BC as this event caused horrific events in Egypt and caused the declining Minoan (Kalliste) Maritime Empire, Egypts trading partner, an accelerated decline.
    Ezekiel’s “vision” is a firmly established real event which has been much talked about for years in the Middle East.
    Ezekiel would have heard accounts from relatives of people who had been employed by Pharaoh Khufu’s administration and/or the administration of Khafre and Menkaure.
    Ezekiel’s account may lack the technical language we take for granted, but knowing the subject of his “vision” gives us an insight into the quaintness of ancient language.
    References to animals was part of the ancient world in language and in artifacts.
    “He’s as strong as an ox, fights like a lion and can run like a cheetah”.
    Ancient furniture legs have animal feet, paws and claws and arm-rests have animal paws and claws for instance.
    This tradition has continued into modern times, but today we have technical language available to us when we want to be clear and precise.

  18. Paul Hai says:

    continued from last post …

    Thanks for taking the time to study my work.
    Ezekiel’s vision is solved by accident however.
    Firstly, I had to discover how 2.3 million blocks of stone were raised in just twenty years (historically documented) for construction of Khufu’s Great Pyramid.
    Rampless Pyramid construction was realised during university research on the Sunday afternoon of 27 August 2006.
    The pinion-pulley lobes are known by many people as “Petrie rockers” after William Matthew Flinders Petrie was handed one in 1895 for his Petrie museum in London. This “rocker” was found at Deir El Bahari in the temple complex of Pharaoh Hatshepsut and bears the cartouche of the woman Pharaoh Hatshepsut which translates as “Elegant Lady”.
    The lobed components when fitted around a block of stone do NOT form a wheel but a four lobe array or as I began to realise, “wheels within wheels” and found myself reading and studying Ezekiel’s vision over and over for hours.
    How else could a person describe a LOBE in 590 BC ?
    “Wheels within wheels” is referring to the four lobes as fitted around a Pyramid block.
    Some readers will be asking if The Great Pyramid could have been built within twenty years as historical documents state?
    Let us suppose ten of these “wheels within wheels” wooden machines were operating on each side of the Pyramid, so there were forty “wheels within wheels” wooden machines at work back in 2500 BC.
    The workers were NOT slaves, so let them have an eight hour day (or the cool of night, working by torch-light) and let them raise one block per machine to its place per hour.
    The daily work of forty “wheels within wheels” wooden machines raises 320 blocks per day.
    With 365 days in a year this is 116,800 blocks raised per year and in twenty years Khufu’s Great Pyramid has been completed with an estimated 2,336,000 blocks being raised and placed.
    Ramps are NOT mentioned in any historical documents relating to Giza Pyramid construction and all ramp theories are modern and not related to real ancient history. All ramp theories become null and void anyway due to the fact that 2.3 million blocks of stone had to be placed within twenty years, so ramp theorists have stated Greek historian Herodotus was a liar and Egyptian historian priests did not know what they were talking about … and there was a mix-up with the translation from Egyptian to Greek. Most of these ramp theorists people are highly paid experts (ex-spurts) who have made documentary films and written their lies into books. You all know who they are.

    When we read of men having clawed feet or a calf’s foot this is not about deformed people or aliens.
    This has to be interpreted as men carrying or working with clawed feet apparatus or the apparatus has a calf’s foot shaped attachment.
    There are two centrally edge located notches cut out in the base of many Pyramid blocks where these attachments were placed for lifting the blocks so the opened and laid flat pinion-pulley lobes, like an open bracelet, could be pulled underneath, wrapped around a Pyramid block and closed, making it ready for its step-walk upward on the Pyramid’s steps.
    These lifting devices are known as claw-lifts. (Reference the Ersnt von Sieglin German expedition of 1909-1910)

  19. Ivar Nielsen says:

    In my opinion, Ezekiel envisioned the most basically and common human story, namely the Story of Creation.

    – In ancient times, the largest observation of the cosmos included the Milky Way which in itself looks like a “UFO” with the bulged and luminous central area.

    When looking at the Milky Way band from both hemispheres, it is observable all around the Earth, and therefore the Milky Way band is symbolized as a Great Serpent.

    – From the middle of the Milky Way everything is created from the nuclear process and launched out in the galactic surroundings. This central area is mythological called “The Primeval Mound” and furthermore it is geo-symbolized and connected with mountains; hills; temples and so on.

    From the centre of the Milky Way, “spiraling rivers”, i.e. spiraling arms, are floating out in the surroundings, forming 2 characteristic figures on both Earth´s hemispheres, namely a male like structure on the northern sky, and a female like structure on the southern sky where the star constellation of Sagittarius is located very precisely in the “womb of the Milky Way female structure” from where everything is created, hence the mytheme of the Great heavenly Mother” or the supreme Mother Goddess.

    These 2 figures symbolizes the 2 major creative forces/beings of either human or animal symbols, and sometimes anthropomorphic symbols.

    Observed from the Earth, the solar system is mythological located via the 4 directions of the nigth sky, depicting the 4 cardinal directions = the 4 animal symbols.

    For further explanations and illustrations, read my personal Mytho-Cosmological site:

    Also: Forum: Milky Way Mythology –

  20. Luke says:

    As a Christian reading Ezekiel, I have to admit that the imagery conjured can certainly be imagined as a kind of spacecraft. It’s kind of cool, and thinking about the possibility is certainly fun. As others have pointed out though, while you can fit the imagery into that of a spacecraft, it’s rather hard to fit the entire text into that of an alien visitation, and you have to really twist some of the text. Why not just take this for what is says – a God inspired dream/vision with some fantastic imagery that really was as Ezekiel described. We don’t have to try and figure out what it “really” was. It was a symbolic (and trippy) vision as those described elsewhere in the Bible like Revelation. I’ve had some pretty funky dreams too!

  21. mike says:

    We have to take Ezekiel’s eye witness account in the context of the period. He is describing something in great detail so we know it actually happened. Uneducated people today would describe things that they do not understand or have seen before in a way that says, ‘It was like one of those tins you see on shelves in the back of supermarket, but shining like a diamond’. which means nothing to most of us apart from the individual references to known objects. Like the American Indians calling the railway train an ‘Iron horse’. Do we take that literally? We know it looks nothing like a horse but they had to express it in that way because the horse was the most powerful thing they knew that was able to gallop at speed. People even see reflections or details in machinery that reminds them of faces. The front of a car with it’s grill and headlights could be described in the same way. They also have people inside them, under a firmament (hebrew for ‘thin metal plate’) and behind glass (crystal). Ask any remote native to describe a piece of technology or hardware that is familiar to us and they would reference animal forms, magical creatures and God like powers.

    • Alex says:

      Best comment so far. I also think that Ezekiel described something that really happened. And given the choice between God and aliens, based on current scientific knowledge and progress (e.g., exoplanetary research using the Kepler Space telescope), the odds are in favor of aliens. But who knows, maybe Ezekiel was high at the time and saw something completely different? We’ll never know for sure and I can certainly live with that.

      Also: If someone today claims to have visions of god most people dismiss those claims easily. Why, then, do we accept similar claims from more than 2000 years ago made by some uneducated shepherd as fact?

  22. dchaitanya says:

    I have gone through the article and is interesting. But, have anybody tried to look deep into Indian ancient vedic history in which the – that mythology and the Gods or Goddesses described therein along with their portraits are much akin to that described above. For Ex: The picture of ‘cherubim’ in the Hebrew Bible, exactly resembles that of ‘Kamdhenu’ of Hindu Mythology. Similarly the winged Gods of Greeks or Romans or Egyptians are similar to that of Sculptor Gods of Hindu mythology such as ‘Viswakarma’ and his sons.

    Deep research is required to understand these mysteries without prejudicial minds. By dchaitayna.

  23. eli says:

    I enjoy your article and the comments. As an orthodox and believing Jew I have no difficulty accepting a lot of the theories put forward.
    However most religious Jews would go madly aginst it.

    I would leave the question open too: does it really matter exactly what Ezekiel saw?
    Only for our curiosity. And possibly for encouraging us to find out more about our wonderful universe.
    I am yearning to meet an alien – even just to say what Neil Armstrong said –
    (the joke is to read his name from back to front:
    “Gnorts Mr Alien” Amazing coincidence.)

    Is there any reason to expect us to be able to contact an alien? Think of all the
    problems: differences in size and shape, and in their five (?) senses,
    they won’t hear us perhaps and they may see only UV or infrared,
    they obviously won’t breathe our air and may feel threatened by the smallest movement.
    Who knows how many alien spaceships full of thousands of aliens may have been trampled on by a worker’s boots as he ploughed a muddy field?
    Or how many were deafened and killed by the sound of a car?
    How many poisoned by CO2 etc?

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